Floor Coatings FAQs

General Product Questions

Floor in the industry and commerce is not just part of a structure. Industrial floor is heavily exposed to stress, load, and several types of industrial chemicals. In this highly demanding industrial environment, the concrete surface fails. Also, the concrete substrate is porous in nature thus when water and other fluids enter into concrete, the reinforcing steel corrodes. To sustain and maintain industrial floor protection is must.
Epoxy flooring is used in various industrial sectors like automotive, steel, petrochemical, power, food, electronics, appliance, engineering, fertilizer, pharma, etc. Also, it can be applied in garages, offices, shops, car parking, etc.
Before selecting flooring you should understand the operational requirements like crack bridging, slip resistance, abrasion resistance, impact-load resistance, compression resistance, traffic resistance, non-flammability, conductivity, aesthetics, easy to clean, ease of maintenance, long life, chemical resistance, etc. of the area.
No, you don’t need to recoat it every year. Normally the epoxy finish recoat is required after a period of 3-5 years. The recoat period may vary depending on the use of the floor. The floor where there is heavy and continuous movement or it is highly exposed to corroding environment or it is not maintained properly or there is a need to maintain aesthetics, for such floor recoating period shortens.
Chembond Coatings epoxy floor system includes components that when mixed together in a given ratio and applied to the floor in a given order, start a chemical reaction changing the liquid mixture into the hard, durable, dense chemically resistant epoxy film which forms a strong bond with the concrete that remains.
Unprotected concrete floors will wear, become stained by oils and fluids, and be damaged by the corrosive effects of snow and ice melting chemicals such as rock salt. Epoxy flooring protects concrete from wear because it is actually harder and more durable than the concrete itself. The hard durable epoxy coating is so dense that oils and fluids cannot penetrate its surface to soak in and cause staining. It is also impervious to the corrosive effects of rock salt.
Yes, it can be scratched if heavy objects are dragged across its surface. However, under normal conditions, the floor should not scratch. PU floor has better scratch resistance property than the epoxy floor.
Ultraviolet radiation (a component of sunlight) will cause most floor coatings to fade. For the floor exposed to sunlight, an aliphatic PU coating is recommended.
It is important to avoid using regular household soaps. When mixed with water, they can create a slippery surface and leave a filmy residue. It is recommended to use a soft, non-abrasive bristled scrub brush and a non-abrasive cleaning compound. Once the epoxy coating is clear of any dirt or stains, be sure and rinse off the debris and any cleaning compound that was used. It is safe to use a pressure washer on the epoxy finish. For more details follow Chembond Coatings “Do's and Don'ts” guidelines.
Peeling epoxy should not be a problem for years to come as long as the proper steps are taken to prep the floor. If care is not taken to clean and remove any stains or you have areas where moisture manages to come through the concrete from underneath, peeling is possible.
The time taken to install epoxy floor finish will vary from one project to the next. For surface prep work, some floors may require patching or extra effort to clean tough stains or old epoxy. Under the standard condition, for a team of 7-8 labors, it takes about 8-10 days to complete an application of a 3mm epoxy floor of 2000sqm which varies depending upon the system selected. For the working site, the installation time varies significantly.
Yes, it has aesthetic appeal with a wide variety of shades. Also, different types of decorative silica/quartz are available in epoxy flooring.
Yes they do. You hit on some key items that improve the quality of finish. The resins along with the binders give you the quality of finish. Also, the way the product is produced can impact quality. Paint goes through a piece of machinery called a wet grinding mill. This grinds everything together. The size of the grinding media used and the length of time it goes through the mill impact the fineness of the pigment grind, which impacts the quality of the product.
Of the three main paint ingredients - pigments, solvents, and binders - the pigment provides hiding power and gives paint its color and shading. The solvents carry the paint to the surface, and then evaporate, leaving behind a film of paint; the binders are bonding agents that hold the paint together.

 Installation Questions

Chembond Coatings Epoxy Flooring System follows the following chronological order: surface preparation (testing, cleaning, crack and substrate treatment), priming, screeding, sealing, self-leveling topping, PU coating, and curing. The order varies depending upon the system selected.
Yes, surface preparation is crucial to the proper installation of Epoxy flooring. The epoxy floor coating will not be able to penetrate and bond to concrete in areas where oil or fluid contamination has occurred. A worn floor may have a loose mortar and/or an insufficient profile to assure proper epoxy bonding. Thus surface preparation ensures that there is the removal of contaminants and also provides a “profile” for the epoxy to adhere to.
Chembond Coatings Flooring is not recommended for application over existing coatings because the existing coating will inhibit bonding of the epoxy to the concrete floor. Floors that have existing coatings should be stripped, etched, or shot blasted to remove as much of the old floor coating as possible. In cases where the coating cannot be removed, sanding of the floor can provide a ‘profile’ for the epoxy to adhere to.
Depending upon the product selected the mixing ratio and no. of components to be mixed varies thus you must follow the instruction given on the container.
The working time with Chembond Coatings flooring is around 30 minutes for epoxy flooring products and 1 hr for PU flooring products.
Yes, extreme heat or cold can affect Epoxy Flooring during application. In extreme heat the chemical reaction in epoxy will be accelerated, causing the curing process to speed up and make the epoxy coating tacky and difficult to apply. In extreme cold the reaction will slow down, thereby increasing the cure time.
Yes, humidity can affect the application process. High humidity can condense on the cooler concrete floor leaving a microscopic moisture barrier between the epoxy and the floor. Since the epoxy floor coating is not water-soluble it may not penetrate this moisture barrier and therefore the bond between the epoxy and the floor may not be optimal. The epoxy coating should be applied when the relative humidity is below 75%.
Yes, for normal epoxy applications, the substrate moisture level should be less than 4%. Osmosis phenomena occur at more than 4% moisture level.
Take care to avoid skin or eye contact and breathing vapors. In the event of the skin contact immediately wash thoroughly. In the event of eye contact, wash continuously for 15 minutes in water, and seek medical advice. Wear protective clothing, gloves, and safety glasses while using this product. If inhalation occurs, move to fresh air and seek medical advice in case of difficulty in breathing. Keep material away from heat, flames, and sources of ignition. For further details read Material Safety Data Sheet.
Concrete takes about 30 days, on average, to cure. After that, we can apply our coating.

Technical Questions

Operational requirements like crack bridging, slip resistance, abrasion resistance, impact-load resistance, compression resistance, traffic resistance, non-flammability, conductivity, aesthetics, easy to clean, ease of maintenance, long life, etc. and surface condition determines the flooring system.
0.5 co-efficient of friction is common acceptance in general floor areas and 0.8 on wheelchair ramps. The ELCO meter test equipment can test Unit of force/weight of the object. The OSHA (Occupation Safety Health Administration) says a safe slip resistance as specified by 1910.68 is 0.5 co-efficient of friction. Additional floor test specifications by ADA: 0.6 flat surface 0.8 ramped surfaces as defined by ADA accessibility guidelines (ADAAG).
100% solids refer to a lack of solvents: the thickness of a 100% solids coating remains the same -whether wet or dry - because there are no solvents to evaporate.
V.O.C. stands for Volatile Organic Component, and it usually refers to solvents in the system. However, not all solvents are V.O.C's, which means that the solids content of the coating can be less than the amount of V.O.C's in the system. The lower the amount of V.O.C's in the coating, the safer it is to use. V.O.C increases the degree of flammability of the coating and also increases the health risk associated with application of the coating.
Yes, Coating with low to medium amount of anti-skid is traditionally cleaned with a mop with water or water/vinegar mixture. If you add more aggressive anti-skid, a broom will need to be used in place of the mop, everything else stays the same.
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is the transfer of an electrostatic charge between two objects. This is a very rapid event that happens when two objects of different potentials come into direct contact with each other. Most Epoxy floors are antistatic (non-conductive) which is rendered electrically conductive or static dissipative by adding, blending, or weaving carbon and graphite into standard flooring materials. ESD floor are categorized based on resistance of floor i.e. • Conductive Floor: < 1* 106 Ω • Static Dissipative Floor: 1* 106 Ω - 1* 109 Ω • Anti Static Floor: Charge > 1* 109 Ω
Yes, the substrate profile plays an important role during coating. Bonding of substrate with epoxy coating depends upon the surface profile. A profile of CSP 2 or 3 is recommended (profile should appear similar to 60-80 grit sandpaper). Uneven profile increases the consumption of epoxy floor coating.
After approximately 24 hours of curing time, light load movement is possible
No, as we treat the joints and cracks by opening it and then by filling with the appropriate joint material, flexible or semi-rigid, after installation of the coating.

High Performance Coatings FAQs


The coating is a barrier used to separate two highly reactive materials. A coating must be a completely continuous film in order to fulfill its function. Any imperfection becomes a focal point for corrosion and the breakdown of the structure.
A metal structural must maintain its integrity to continually support the loads it is designed to resist. Over time corrosion can eat away at the base steel material and reduce the capacity metal. With adequate protection against corrosion, a metal structural can maintain its integrity throughout its service life.
Corrosion can be broadly defined as the reaction of a material with its environment causing the deterioration or degradation of a material. Typically steel corrosion occurs when it is exposed to air causing it to oxidize or rust. As the steel rusts, it will flake off exposing fresh steel which will then corrode and flake off too starting a cycle.
Primers rich in zinc provide a tight, moisture-barrier film that protects the steel from corrosion by sacrificing itself rather than allowing the steel to rust. Zinc primers also self-heal and resume protection of the steel if the coating is damaged.
KemOxy is a protective, decorative, 2-part epoxy coating system. It can be used on a wide variety of substrates and in numerous environments, which require a highly protective and attractive coating.
Epoxy coatings are mainly used because of their outstanding chemical resistance, durability, low porosity, and high bonding strength. KemOxy epoxy coating will bond with almost all properly prepared surfaces. It will provide an attractive, long-lasting, chemically resistant, strong bonding, and a highly decorative film.
KemOxy epoxy coating consists of two distinct components. Side A Epoxy Resin and Side B Curing Agent. The two components are mixed in a 1-to-1 ratio. A chemical reaction occurs between the two parts generating heat and turning the mixture into an inert, hard film with the previously mentioned characteristics. After the two epoxy parts are combined there is a working time (pot-life) during which the epoxy can be applied or used. At the end of the pot-life, the mixture becomes warm and quickly begins to harden.
In most normal uses, KemOxy will provide substrate protection for years without re-coating. In some circumstances, continued and prolonged, outside exposures to ultra-violet light may cause some degree of oxidation (chalking) and/or induce slight color fading. However, most normal periods of sunlight exposure will not affect the film. Even if chalking occurs, the product will retain its outstanding protective integrity for years.
KemOxy will harden to tack or dust free in 20 minutes to 1 hour. After 4 hours, the film will be thumbprint free. After 24 hours, the painted surface/object will be ready to be placed into most normal situations (package able) but complete cure (sword hardness) will generally take several days. In most normal conditions, KemOxy epoxy will be suitably hard within a 24 hour period.
The best time to recoat epoxy is within 48 hours after the initial coat. Because epoxies take days to reach a full cure, a second coat applied shortly after the first will partially fuse to the first coat rather than forming a simple mechanical bond. You will also eliminate the need to sand between coats if you reapply within a short amount of time.
Shake both parts vigorously for several minutes first. If the product has been sitting for a period of time, stir each part up from the bottom before shaking. Always mix the epoxies in one container then pour it into a second container and apply it from the second container. The reason is that mixing is never very good at the corners, edges, and sides of the mixing container. If you apply the epoxy from the primary mixing pail you will certainly get some of the unmixed epoxies from the bottom of the container and that epoxy will not harden. Transferring the epoxy to a second container leaves the unmixed epoxy behind, or blends it into the well-mixed epoxy.
We do not recommend using (applying) the product on substrates below 10°C or above 50°C (likewise for ambient temperatures). For optimum results, apply to substrates, and store the product between 10°C-25°C. Humidity can slow curing processes down. For best results, use product below 70% humidity.
The surface must be clean and free from dirt, dust, grease, rust, scale, or anything that will otherwise impede adhesion. Whenever possible, solvent wash project with KemOxy reducer before you start painting.
The waiting or induction period, is used to give the two components (Part-A Epoxy & Part-B Catalyst) time to 'react' to each other, prior to bonding/reacting with the substrate. This will produce the best-dried film after cure. We also recommend the induction period to help avoid 'under mixing'. For the best possible results, be sure to allow the two mixed components to induct for 30-40 minutes after mixing but before thinning and application.
A polyurethane coating is an organic coating made from the reaction of isocyanate-rich and polyol-rich compounds. Polymerization is made possible by using di- and poly-functional isocyanates and polyols. There is no byproduct from the reaction between isocyanates and alcohols. This is important in terms of cost-effectiveness and health risk. R-N=C=O(isocyanate) + R'-OH(alcohol) --> R-NH-CO-O-R'9(urethane) Interest in polyurethane coatings is growing rapidly because of their high chemical and abrasion resistance, excellent electrical properties, and very low-temperature cure due to the exothermic nature of the polymerization. Polyurethane coatings are capable of being made into soft, elastic materials, as well as into very hard, tough, abrasion-resistant products.
Polyurethane coatings can cure in a number of ways depending on the design of the system. Polyurethane coatings can be cured by: 1) reaction between the isocyanate and the polyol; 2) evaporation of the solvent (if present in the formula); and 3) reaction between the isocyanate and moisture from the air. The reaction between the isocyanate and water results in the formation of carbamic acid which decomposes to a yield carbon dioxide and amine. R-N=C=O + H-O-H(water) ----> [R-NH-CO-O-H](carbamic acid ) ----> R-NH2(amine) + CO2 (g)
V.O.C. stands for Volatile Organic Component, and it usually refers to solvents in the system. However, not all solvents are V.O.C's, which means that the solids content of the coating can be less than the amount of V.O.C's in the system. The lower the amount of V.O.C's in the coating, the safer it is to use. V.O.C increases the degree of flammability of the coating and also increases the health risk associated with application of the coating.
It depends on the type of coating. Chembond's plural and single component products are applied by spray. Therefore, it is advised that one wears a mask or respirator and gloves when applying the product. For touch-up and mix and apply coatings, no special equipment is required.
100% solids refer to a lack of solvents: the thickness of a 100% solids coating remains the same -whether wet or dry - because there are no solvents to evaporate. There are many advantages to 100% solids coatings. First, these coatings are more environmentally friendly and generally safer to use due to their decreased levels of flammability and health risk. Second, on a cost-per-mil of thickness, they are very cost-effective. Finally, most 100% solids coatings have the advantage of additional thickness that helps to increase their physical properties and chemical resistance.
The advantages of polyurethane coatings are: Polyurethane coatings can be made to cure at virtually any given time by changing the amount of catalyst or the type of polyol in the formulation. Thus, fast-setting, one coat polyurethanes have a much faster turn around time than epoxy systems. Epoxy coatings generally take seven to ten days to fully cure and to allow the solvents to evaporate. Some epoxy systems require force curing. One hundred percent polyurethane coatings are solvent-free and have lower toxicity levels than the epoxies. Due to solvent content, epoxy coatings are extremely flammable. Due to the exothermic nature of the reaction between polyol and isocyanate, polyurethane coatings can cure at almost any ambient temperature. This means that polyurethane coatings can be applied even during the cold months of the year. Epoxy coatings, on the other hand, usually require temperatures above 10°C. One hundred percent polyurethane coatings feature a unique 'self-inspecting' property; they fail almost immediately if they are incorrectly applied or if there is a problem with the surface preparation or the mixing ratio. Thus, polyurethane coatings can be inspected immediately after application and any defects in the coating will be visible.
Paint is made up of four basic elements: solvent, binder, pigment, and additives. The material left on a substrate after the solvent evaporates and the coating cures are its solids content. When calculated as a percentage of the total gallon of paint, the solids are referred to as 'Volume Solids.' A higher percentage of Volume Solids is usually an indication of better quality paint because more binder and pigment are left to protect the surface compared to a coating with a lower Volume Solids rating.
Yes they do. You hit on some key items that improve the quality of finish. The resins along with the binders give you the quality of finish. Also, the way the product is produced can impact quality. Paint goes through a piece of machinery called a ball mill. This grinds everything together. The size of the balls used and the length of time it goes through the mill impacts the fineness of the pigment grind, which impacts the quality of the product.
Of the three main paint ingredients - pigments, solvents and binders - the pigment provides hiding power and gives paint its color and shading. The solvents carry the paint to the surface, then evaporate, leaving behind a film of paint; the binders are bonding agents that hold the paint together.